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observation frameworks
for teaching quality

Many teaching observation frameworks are available and in use by school districts around the nation (e.g., Danielson Group, 2013; Marshall, 2014; Marzano, 2017).  This handbook does not take a stance on or address the use of these existing forms of observation protocols.  Rather, we assume that the adoption of observation protocols will be developed locally.


As an example of an alignment of InTASC standards with an observation protocol in a teacher preparation program, the North Dakota Association of Colleges of Teacher Education has created a standards-aligned protocol.  We offer this tool as an example.


ND Common Metrics-Student Teacher Observation Tool (STOT)

And in the spirit of using multiple measures of teacher effectiveness to drive program improvement, the North Dakota Association of Colleges of Teacher Education has created an alignment between the standards-based observation protocol and the NExT Common Metrics instruments.

Alignment between NDACTE Student Teaching Observation Tool and Common Metrics surveys used by NExT and NDACTE

Making sense of multiple measures

One of the challenges of collecting multiple forms of data related to teacher effectiveness is the challenge of analyzing and integrating these data to make decisions about program improvement.  The following questions can serve as a guide for how to examine multiple data sources with particular purposes in mind.

Table 3.5

Making Sense of Multiple Measures


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